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O Grupo de Estudos 23 de Outubro mantém 11 Blogs, eles falam de moralidade, política, nacionalismo, sociedade e Fé. Se você gostar inscreva-se como seguidor, ou divulgue nosso Blog clicando sobre o envelope marcado com uma flecha ao fim de cada texto. Agradecemos seu comentário. Obrigado pela visita.

segunda-feira, 7 de março de 2016

Navegadores negros II

Amir Klink ao atravessas o oceano Atlântico em um barco movido a remos, de apenas seis metros, das Costas da Africa, ao Brasil, apenas respeitando as correntes oceânica, abriu novas possibilidades para explicar as populações negras sul-americanas  pré -colombianas. Leiam o livro Cem dias entre o Céu e o Mar.

Paul Rivet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Paul Rivet.
Paul Rivet.jpeg
Paul Rivet
Born7 May 1876
Died21 March 1958
Known forMusée de l'Homme
Comité de vigilance des intellectuels antifascistes
Paul Rivet (7 May 1876, WasignyArdennes – 21 March 1958) was a French ethnologist; he founded the Musée de l'Homme in 1937. In his professional work, Rivet is known for his theory that South America was originally populated in part by migrants who sailed there from Australia and Melanesia.

Early life and education[edit]

Paul Rivet was born in WasignyArdennes in 1876. He attended local schools and university, studying to be a doctor.


Trained as a physician, in 1901 he took part in the Second French Geodesic Mission for survey measurements of the length of a meridian arc to Ecuador. He remained for five years in South America, where he was mentored byFederico González Suárez, an Ecuadorian bishop, historian and archaeologist. Rivet became interested in theindigenous peoples, beginning an ethnographic study of the Huaorani people of the Ecuadorian Amazon, then known as the Jívaro. Returning to France, Rivet went to work with the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, directed by René Verneau.
He published several papers on his Ecuadorian research, before publishing an extended volume co-authored with René Verneau, titled Ancient Ethnography of Ecuador (1921-1922). In 1926, Rivet participated in founding the Institut d'ethnologie in Paris, together with Marcel MaussEmile Durkheim, and Lucien Lévy-Bruhl. They intended it as a collaboration among the fields of philosophy, ethnology and sociology. He taught many French ethnologists, including George Devereux. In 1928, he succeeded René Verneau as director of the National Museum of Natural History.
Rivet also became involved in politics, alarmed at the rise of Fascism in Europe during the 1930s. During the 6 February 1934 crisis, he was one of the founders of the Comité de vigilance des intellectuels antifascistes, an antifascist organization created in the wake of massive riots in Paris.
He continued to develop institutions for the study of mankind. In 1937 he founded the Musée de l'Homme in Paris, which became renowned for its ethnographic research and collections. In 1942, Rivet went to Colombia, where he founded the Anthropological Institute and Museum. Returning to Paris in 1945, he continued teaching while carrying on his research. His linguistic research introduced several new perspectives on the Aymara and Quechua languages of South America.

Migration theory[edit]

Rivet's theory asserts that Asia was the origin of the Indigenous people of the Americas. But he also suggested that migrations to South America were made fromAustralia some 6,000 years before, and from Melanesia somewhat later. Les Origines de l'Homme Américain ("The Origins of the American Man") was published in 1943, and contains linguistic and anthropological arguments to support his thesis.


  • with René Verneau, 1921-1922. Ancient Ethnography of Ecuador.
  • 1923. L'orfèvrerie du Chiriquí et de Colombie. Paris: Société des Américanistes de Paris.
  • 1923. L'orfèvrerie précolombienne des Antilles, des Guyanes, et du Vénézuéla, dans ses rapports avec l'orfèvrerie et la métallurgie des autres régions américaines. Paris: Au siège de la société des Américanistes de Paris.
  • 1943. Los origenes del hombre Americano. México: Cuadernos amerícanos.
  • 1960. Maya cities: Ancient cities and temples. London: Elek Books.
  • with Freund, Gisèle, 1954. Mexique précolombien. Neuchâtel: Éditions Ides et calendes.


  • "Paul Rivet"Encyclopedia Britannica
  • Alarcón, Arturo G. 2006. Paul Rivet Y La Teoría Oceánica.
  • D’Harcourt, Raoul. 1958. "Paul Rivet," American Anthropologist 60(4), 1180-1181
  • Rodriguez, Antonio O. 2003. Paul Rivet: Estudioso Del Hombre Americano, Panamericana Editorial. ISBN 9583005266

Federico González Suárez

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Federico González Suárez
Archbishop of Quito
DioceseArchdiocese of Quito
SeeCathedral of Quito
InstalledDecember 14, 1905
Term endedDecember 5, 1917
PredecessorPedro Rafael González Calisto
SuccessorManuel Maria Polit
OrdinationJuly 30, 1895
Personal details
BornApril 12, 1844
DiedDecember 1, 1917 (aged 72)
BuriedCathedral of Quito
DenominationRoman Catholic
ParentsManuel María González and María Mercedes Suárez
Federico González Suárez (1844–1917) was an Ecuadorian priest, historian and politician who served as the Archbishop of Quito for twelve years. Prior to becoming the Archbishop of Quito, he served as a senator in the Ecuadorian government in 1894 and then as the Bishop of Ibarra from 1895 to 1905.


He was noted for his opposition to the attempts by the anticlerical caudillo Eloy Alfaro to secularize Ecuadorian society.[1] Despite his opposition to the anticlericals, he could be conciliatory and was known as a peacemaker during the country's volatile times, helping to maintain continuity in the nation.[2] Of particular note was his public denunciation of a Conservative force massing in Colombia in 1900, a declaration that effectively ended five years of Civil War and ascribed a measure of legitimacy to Alfaro's Liberal government.
He wrote several books about the history of Ecuador, among them the book Historia General de la República del Ecuador, which is considered a masterpiece for its objectivity, painstaking research and erudition.[3] He was not shy about criticizing the Church in Ecuador for abuses during the colonial period. The publication of the fourth volume of his history in 1894 was particularly scandalous since it uncovered the sexual liaisons of seventeenth-century Dominican friars in Quito. Although this work drew criticism from his superiors, he was ultimately vindicated, with the Vatican acknowledging the veracity of his analysis.[4]
His diligent scholarship, political savvy and commitment to the faith cause him to be remembered as one of the most notable figures of Ecuadorian scholarship, politics and Church leadership.[5]
The González Suárez neighborhood of the city of Quito is named after him.

External links[edit]

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